Metfone is made from Khmer language. "Mette" means "friend". By adding English words commonly used in telecommunications "fone", we created a brand name that have both Cambodia value and global telecommunications value - Metfone. Friendship and good life are 2 things Khmer cherish most. Therefore, Metfone wants to become a telecommunications networks to bring better future for Cambodian, like close friend.
The No.1 mobile operator accounting for 50% market share with 4.3 million subscribers, owning the biggest telecom network in terms of:
Network infrastructure with 18,000km fiber optical cable and 5,212 base stations (2G and 3G).
Distribution channels with 185 shops, 339 agents, 35,908 sales points and 2044 sales people.
Customer care system with 250 agents/shift at the same time.
International Awards achieved:
Best Operator in Emerging Market by World Communications Awards (2011).
Frost & Sullivan Asia Pacific ICT Award for “Emerging Market Service Provider of the Year” (2009)
1. General Information
- Country: Cambodia
- Capital: Phnom Penh
- Area: 181,035 km2, ranked 90th in the world.
- Geographical location:
It borders Thailand to the north and west, Laos to the northeast, and Vietnam to the east and southeast. It has a 443-kilometer (275 mi) coastline along the Guft of Thailand
- Climate: Cambodia's climate is tropical wet and dry. It has a temperature range from 21 to 35 °C (69.8 to 95.0 °F) and experiences tropical monsoons. Cambodia has two distinct seasons. The rainy season, which runs from May to October, can see temperatures drop to 22 °C (71.6 °F) and is generally accompanied with high humidity. The dry season lasts from November to April when temperatures can rise up to 40 °C (104 °F) around April.
- Terrain: Cambodia's landscape is characterized by a low-lying central plain that is surrounded by uplands and low mountains and includes the Great Lake and the upper reaches of the Mekong River delta. Extending outward from this central region are transitional plains, thinly forested and rising to elevations of about 650 feet (200 meters) above sea level.
- Administrative unit: Cambodia is divided into 25 provinces including the capital. Municipalities and districts are the second-level administrative divisions of Cambodia. The provinces are subdivided into 159 districts and 26 municipalities. The districts and municipalities in turn are further divided into communes (khum) and quarters (sangkat).
- Language: Khmer, French, English. Cambodia is a homogeneous country with more than 90% population speaks Khmer. French and English is widely used in Cambodia as a second language
- GPD growth rate: + GPD growth rate in 2013: 7.3% + GDP 2013: 17:25 billion + GDP per capita in 2013: $ 1.108 Cambodia's economy is considered to be one of the most open economies in Asia with a large participation of the private sector and abroad. Cambodia is considered as potential country with natural resources, young workforce, cheap labor. Cambodia is basically an agricultural country, the main economic sectors are agriculture, textiles and tourism.
- The structure of the economy: + Agriculture: 36% + Industry: 24.3% + Services: 39.7% (2012 est.) Some characteristics of the economic structure: Agriculture accounts 35% of GDP. Harvested Rice is estimated at over 6 million tonnes per year, exports about 1 million tonnes.. Cambodian Agricultural products are mainly rice, maize, groundnuts, rubber, tobacco, ...
- Industry: including textiles, construction, fishing, wood and wood products, rubber, cement, ore out, ... in which textiles, construction is the mainstay of the economy. The garment industry represents the largest portion of Cambodia's manufacturing sector, accounting for 80% of the country's exports. Cambodia also has some deposits of precious stones, ruby, gold, bauxite, .... In 2010, the growth rate of the industry reached 5.7%. The tourism industry is the country's second-greatest source of hard currency after the textile in 1993 there were 118,183 international tourists, and in 2009 there were 2,161,577 international tourists. Most of the tourists were Japanese, Chinese, Filipinos, Americans, South Koreans and French, said the report, adding that the industry earned some 1.4 billion U.S. dollars in 2007, accounting for almost ten percent of the kingdom's gross national products..
- Fair Trade: The Fair Trade movement has led to a large number of handicrafts being exported for use around the world. Fair trade is used as a way to garner employment for the disabled and under privileged and is fuelled by many organisations who give aid to Cambodia.
+ Imports: $ 7.8 billion (2012 est.). + Imported commodities: petroleum products, cigarettes, gold, construction materials, machinery, motor vehicles, pharmaceuticals. (Thailand 27.2%, Vietnam 20%, China 19.5%, Singapore 7.1%, Hong Kong 5.9%, South Korea 4.3%)
Population 7/2013: 15,205,539 people. The population growth rate: 1.67% (2013 est.). Population density: 74 people / km2. The proportion of poor people: 56.5% (living below $ 2 / day). The rate of literacy (age 15 and up): 77.6% (males: 85.1%, female 70.9%) (data 2008).
Age: + From 0-14 years: 31.7% (male 2,428,507 / female 2,397,327) + From 15-24 years: 21.2% (male 1,597,990 / female 1,627,161) + From 25-54 years: 38.2% (male 2,828,752 / female 2,985,226) + From 55-64 years: 4.9% (male 287.073 / 464.991 female) + From 65 years and over: 3.9% (male 221.356 / 367.156 female) (2013 est.) + Population Cambodian children, aged 0-24 years old accounted for 53% of the population. + Population in the capital: 1.55 million people (2011). + Labour force by occupation: Agriculture: 55.8% Industry: 16.9% Services: 27.3%.
2. Ethic group
The largest ethnic group in Cambodia are the Khmers, who comprise around 90% of the total population in Cambodia, and are indigenous to the lowland Mekong subregion in which they inhabit. The Vietnamese are the largest (or second largest) ethnic minority in Cambodia, with an estimated 400,000 - 700,000 living in provinces concentrated in the southeast of the country adjacent to the Mekong delta. Chinese Cambodians are approximately 1% of the population. Most Chinese are descended from 19th–20th century
3. Religion Buddhism is the official religion of Cambodia, practiced by more than 95 percent of the population with an estimated 4,392 monastery temples throughout the country. Cambodian Buddhism is deeply pervaded by Hinduism, Tantrism, and native animism. Key concepts in Cambodian Buddhism include bonn (Pali punna, merit), reincarnation, and kamm (Pali kamma, karma), which means the moral result accruing from action in Pali but a concept closer to "misfortune" in Khmer.
Nexttel is the first network in Cameroon provide 3G services. With network infrastructure includin fiber optic, Nexttel aims to provide the latest industry experienced the most advanced technology to the people of Cameroon.
1. General Information
- Country: Republic of Cameroon
- Capital: Yaoundé
- Area: 475,440 km2 (1.4 times larger than Vietnam), ranked 54th in the world.
- Location: The country is located in Central and West Africa on the Bight of Bonny, part of the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean. The country's neighbours are Nigeria to the west; Chad to the northeast; the Central African Republic to the east; and Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and the Republic of the Congo to the south
- Climate: Cameroon is divided into 2 different climatic zones:
+ North Region: Dry, with two seasons: rainy and dry.
* The rainy season from April to September, the average rainfall is about 1000-1750 mm / 1 year. * The rest of the year is the dry season where temperatures can reach 40 ° C. The average temperature is about 28 ° C.
+ South Region: hot and humid, divided into two rainy seasons and two dry seasons. * Rainy season from March to June, heavy rains from August to November. * Dry season from June to August, hard from November to March. - Terrain: Cameroon has many hills, average altitude is about 1,000 meters above the sea. - Language: Both English and French are official languages, although French is by far the most understood language (80+%) - National: 05/20/1972.
2. Economy - GDP growth rate: + GDP growth rate in 2014: 5% + GDP per capita in 2013: $ 1.315. - GDP composition by sector: + Agriculture: 20.7% + Industry: 27.7% + Services: 51.6% (2012 est.) - Exports: + Exports: $ 6 billion (2012 est.). + Export commodities: crude oil and petroleum products, timber, cocoa, aluminum, coffee and cotton. ( China 14.8%, Netherlands 9.5%, Spain 8.8%, India 8.4%, Portugal 7.9%, Italy 5.9%, US 5 and 3%.)
- Import + Imports: $ 6.5 billion (2012 est.). + Imported commodities: machinery, electrical equipment, transport equipment, fuel and food. ( China 18.9%, France 15%, Nigeria 12.1%, Belgium 5.2%, 4.4% American Indian 4.2%.)
- Population: 20,549,221 people (2013 est.) - The population growth rate: 2.04% (2013 est.). - The proportion of the poor: 48% (living below $ 2 / day). - The rate of literacy (age 15 and up): 71.3% of the population. - Age ratio:
Cameroon's population is quite young, between the ages of 0-24 years old accounted for 60.3% of the population. - Urban population: 52.1% (2011). - Labor force by occupations: + Agriculture: 70% + Industry: 13% + Services: 17%
2. Ethnic group: - Ethnic groups of Cameroon: the Cameroon Highlanders (31%), Equatorial Bantu (19%), the Kirdi (11%), the Fulani (10%), the Northwest Bantu (8%), the East Nigeria (7%), African people of other ethnic groups (13%), not Africans (under 1%).
3. Religion: 40% of people in Cameroon follow indigenous beliefs, 40% Christian and 20% Muslim.
4. Education: In 2010, the literacy rate of Cameroon was estimated to be 71.3% (male 78.3% and female 64.8%). Most children have access to state-run schools that are cheaper than private and religious facilities. The educational system is a mixture of British and French precedents with most instruction in English or French.
Cameroon has one of the highest school attendance rates in Africa. Girls attend school less regularly than boys do because of cultural attitudes, domestic duties, early marriage and pregnancy, and sexual harassment. Although attendance rates are higher in the south, a disproportionate number of teachers are stationed there, leaving northern schools chronically understaffed
“Natcom” composes of two words “National” and “Communication”, meaning the National Telecommunications Company. It implies that Natcom is a network of the Haitian people and is committed to serve the people of Haitian.
As a national operator, Natcom provides the best products and services to bring people closer together as well as bring solidarity and unity to Haitians.
Year of establishment: 1/2010
Launch of services: 9/2010
Employees: 1046 staffs
Service launching: Mobile, Internet, fixed broadband
NATCOM is the biggest telecom network in Haiti:
NATCOM has 5,000km of fiber optic cable, 1,550 base stations (2G & 3G), covering 90% nationwide. Contributes 90% of the country’s fiber optical cable, making Haiti the leading country in terms of fiber optical cable infrastructure among Caribbean group.
NATCOM supports fixed broadband to 100% of the provincial, city and government district of Haiti.
NATCOM is accounting for 30% mobile market share with 1.5 million subscribers.
1. General information
- Country name: Republic of Haiti
- Total area: 27,750km2.
- Location: Caribbean, borders the Dominican Republic in the East and the ocean in the North, West and South.
- Climate: tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds.
- Terrain: mostly rough and mountainous.
- Capital: Port-au-Prince.
- Administrative divisions: 10 departments. The departments are divided into 41 districts and then 133 communes.
- Language: French, Creole.
- National day: 31/12/1804.
- GDP growth rate:
+ GDP growth rate (2012): 2.8% (ranked 115th)
+ GDP per capita (2012): 771 USD
- Haiti is a free market economy that enjoys the advantages of low labor costs and tariff-free to the US for many of its export products. However, Haiti remains the poorest and least developped country in the world.
- During the past 5 years, Haiti’s economy experienced a slow growth rate. Average growth rate stayed at 2.3% (2005 – 2009). Haiti's economy had a setback when the country was struck by a 7.0 magnitude earthquake, claiming 230 thousand deads and great impact on the economy.
65 years and over: 4.1% (male 183,627/female 227,659) (2014 est.)
- Haiti has young age structure with total number of people aging 0-24 rate of 56.1%
- Urban population rate: 52% (2012).
- Workforce by economic sector:
Haiti has a low literacy rate of 52.9% (male: 54.8% and female: 51.2%). In accordance with the laws, education for children from 7-13years old are free and obligatory. However, participation rate is low due to constraints in school locations and language barrier (classes are mostly in French), and quality of teachers. More than 80% of university graduates have migrated to the US.
Roman Catholic 80%, Protestant 16% (Baptist 10%, Pentecostal 4%, Adventist 1%, other 1%), none 1%, other 3%.
III. HAITIAN LIVING ABROAD
- According to a statistic from The Haitian Diaspora Federation (www.myhdf.org), currently there is 1/3 of Haiti population in the world living outside Haiti.
- Most of them (2.5 million people) live in the US: 700,000 in New York; 500,000 in Florida; 150,000 each in Massachusetts, New Jersey and Illinois; 80,000 in Georgia and the rest of the country.
- The Haitian also live in other countries, including Canada (about 100,000), Europe and Africa (about 30,000 each continent) and Caribbean islands, mostly in Dominican Republic (about 1 million).
“Uni” is extracted from the word “United” – which has similar meaning to solidarity. This is a social value highly respected by Laotian people. Unitel is created as a telecom network to connect the Laotian and bring them a better life.
Star Telecom is a joint venture between Viettel Global and Lao Asia Telecom to provide telecom services under brand name Unitel. With USD 201 million of revenue in 2014, Unitel is the second largest company in Laos.
Unitel is the leading mobile operator in Laos accounting for 47% market share with 1.8 million customers, owning the biggest telecom network in terms of:
Network infrastructure with more than 21,000 km fiber optical cable and 3,100 base stations (2G and 3G).
Distribution channels with 143 shops, 174 agents and sales points, 400 sales people.
Customer care system with 200 agents/shift at the same time.
International Awards achieved: Best Operator in Emerging Market by World Communications Awards (2012).
1. General information
- Name of country: Lao People’s Democratic Republic
- Area: 236,800km2, 84th position in the world.
- Geography: Laos lies in Southeast Asia, in the center of the Indochina peninsular. Laos is a landlocked country which borders China in the North (505 km); Cambodia in the South (535 km); Vietnam in the East (2,069 km), Myanmar in the North West (236 km); and Thailand in the West (1,835 km).
- Climate: Tropical monsoon with 2 seasons:
+ Rainy season: from May to November, temperature is around 30o C, rain frequently falls, some years caused floods in the Mekong.
+ Dry season: from November 11 to April, temperature is around 15o C, sometimes 0o C in the mountains.
- Terrain: 90% of the land is mountainous, some deltas and highlands.
Laos Government started to implement economic reform policies since 1986. Thanks to these innovative measures, the country could achieve average growth rate of 6% in the period from 1988 to 2008. From 2008, Laos always maintains a pretty high GDP growth rate, average of 7,6%. Despite enjoying a fair economic growth, the country’s infrastructure is still poor, especially in rural areas. Road systems are in basic condition, electricity has not reached remote areas. The economy depends on agriculture which accounts more than 30% of GDP, labour force in agriculture represents 70% of the total work force.
In the second half of 2008 and the beginning of 2009, Laos received approximately USD 560 million grant from the United States. Poverty rate decreased from 46% in 1992 to 26% in 2009. Thanks to foreign investment in thermal power sector, mining, construction the economy made significant steps forwards.
Laos finalized all official negotiation rounds to enter the WTO in February 2013.
- GDP composition: Agriculture: 24.8%
Services: 37.5% (2013 est.)
- Some facts of the economy’s composition:
+ In recent years, the services sector maintains a growth rate of about 10%, industry 7-10%, agriculture 2-4%.
+ Major industrial activities in Laos include mining, hydro power, forestry, textile, cement, tourism.
+ Main agricultural products include: sweet potato, potato, vegetable, cereal, coffee, sugar cane, tobacco, fabric, tea, rice, peanut, water buffalo, pig, goat and other poultries.
+ The majority of goods are imported from Thailand. In recent years, Chinese goods penetrate the market via small tracks, especially telephone, tools, children toys…
+ Export partners: Thailand 34%, China 21.5%, Vietnam 12.2% (2012).
+ Import value: USD 3.2 billion USD (2013 est.).
+ Imported commodities: machinery and equipment, vehicles, fuel, consumer goods.
+ Import partners: Thailand 62.1%, China 16.2%, Vietnam 7.3% (2012)
1. Administrative division
The administrative division of Laos composes of 4 levels: 1 central level and 3 local levels. The highest grade of local level is province, the second includes district and town and the last is village.
The capital city of Laos is Vientiane and the second largest city is Luang Prabang. Savannakhet and Pakse are also large cities in Laos.
Vientiane is meant a “moon city”, which became the capital city of Laos since 1563. Located on the left bank of the Mekong river, to the North West of the country, Vientiane is 3,920 km2 large and has the population of around 1 million people. As the largest cultural, commercial, administrative and economic centre of the country, Vientiane is also a famous tourist attraction which is an economic focal point of the city. Many beautiful landscapes, huge and ancient pagodas which are centres of festivals characterizing Lao cultures.
Luang Prabang has the meaning of Huge golden Buddha, which used to be the royal city of the kingdom of Lan Xang (Million Elephants) from the 14th century until 1946. Today, Luang Prabang is well known for its beauty tourist attraction and is recognized by the UNESCO as the world’s heritage.
- Population by 7/2013: 6,695,166 people.
- Population growth rate 1.63% (2013 est.).
- Population below poverty line: 56.5% (spend less than 2 USD/day).
- Literacy (from 15 years old): 72.7% population.
- From 0-14 years: 35.5% (male 1,198,288/female 1,178,180)
- From 15-24 years: 21.3% (male 706,679/female 716,368)
- From 25-54 years: 34.6% (male 1,143,265/female 1,174,102)
- From 55-64 years: 4.9% (male 160,650/female 166,605)
- From 65 and over: 3.7% (male 113,301/female 137,728)
- Rate of urbanization: 34,3% (2011)
- Population of Vientiane: 997.767 people (8/2013).
More than 75% Lao population live in rural areas and engage in farming, even though the urbanization process is occurring rapidly. There are 4 main ethnic groups: Lao Loum who live in the deltas; Lao Tai, who live in valleys of mountainous areas; Lao Theung, live on mountain’s slopes and valleys; Lao Soung, who are mountainous dwellers living on places over 900m height. Apart of those, there are more than 60 other ethnic minorities in Laos.
Buddhist 67%, Christian 1.5%, other and unspecified 31.5% (2005 census).
Buddhism is the most popular belief in Laos, which is followed by 67% of the Lao population and most of the Lao people. The number of Buddhist followers can be higher, as Buddhist has strong impact on many other ethnic groups, who always consider themselves animists. The majority of Lao people are Theravada Buddhist but inherited historically from Mahayana Buddhism. This is also the main belief of the Vietnamese and Chinese ethnic people who live amongst the Laotians.
In the Lao community, pagoda and temple are centers of the community’s activities, where the villagers gather and discuss their concerns or seek for advice and instruction from the monks. Most of the men will move to stay in pagodas for a certain period of time to grasp more knowledge and dedicate merit.
73% of the population over 15 years old can read and write (83% male, 63% female)
Language: Popular languages spoken in Laos is Lao language, Thai language, English and some ethnic languages.
Going from the simple Mozambicans’ dreams of a brighter future, Movitel is committed to becoming a Mozambican leading telecommunication company, and offering better tomorrow for every Mozambican. The brand name Movitel is the combination of the words "Movement" and "Telecom" - alluding to a telecommunication company that always moves forward. Only by always creating and changing to adapt, can Movitel move forward with all Mozambicans, reaching out to a bright future.
Service launching: May 2012
Employees: 2510 staffs including 205 Vietnamese, 2305 Mozambican
Movitel is the largest mobile operator in Mozambique with 4 million customers, accounting for 38% market share. It owns the biggest telecom network with 3,000 2G/3G base stations, 27,000 km of fiber optical cable covering 80% of Mozambican population. Movitel contributes 70% of the country’s fiber optical cable, making Mozambique among the top three nations in terms of fiber optical cable infrastructure in Sub-Saharan Africa.
This infrastructure enables Mozambique’s telecommunication industry to implement the E-Government and ICT applications in the education and healthcare sectors for socio-economic development. Nearly 600,000 people in at least 5 rural districts in Mozambique have been covered and served telecom services for the first time in life. Movitel has created nearly 20,000 jobs in rural areas.
Movitel has improved its successful business strategy as a caring and innovative network for every Mozambican through its business results and the recognition of many international awards. By the end of 2012, only 6 months from launching, Movitel made total revenue of USD 61.6 million. The next 2 years saw significant rise in revenue with USD 154.4 million in 2013 and USD 180 million in 2014.
Best Mobile Innovation Award at the Mobile Innovations Awards.
Golden Globe of “Fastest Growing of the Year in Middle-East and Africa” at the International Business Award.
Best Operator in Emerging Market by World Communications Awards.
Competitive Strategy Leadership award by The American Research and Consulting firm Frost and Sullivan (2013).
Rural Telecom Award of the AfricaCom Awards (2012)
November 2012: AfricaCom 2012 award titled: "The best solutions for improving telecommunications in rural Africa".
October 2013: Frost & Sullivan the award titled: "Competitive Strategy Leadership”.
1. General information
- Country name: Republic of Mozambique
- Area: 799.380 km2 (2.5 times larger than Vietnam).
- Location: Southeastern Africa, bordering Tanzania in the North, Swaziland and South Africa in the South, Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe in the West, and the Indian Ocean in the East.
Mozambique lies in tropical monsoon climate region with 2 seasons: rainy season and dry season:
+ Dry season: April to September with average temperature of 21 – 31၀C.
+ Rainy season: October to March with average temperature of 13 – 24၀C.
- Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands, highlands in center, plateau in the Northwest, mountains in the West.
- Language: Portuguese, Emakhuwa.
- National day: 25/6/1975
- National animal: Elephant (Africa).
2. Administrative Divisions
Mozambique is divided into 10 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 capital city (cidade capital); The 10 provinces are divided into 138 districts (distritos). The districts are then divided into 405 administrative points, then 2,171 localities.
Characteristics of some cities/provinces in Mozambique:
– The capital city of Maputo: is the largest city in Mozambique which is located to the Southeast of the country with a well-equipped sea port and international airport.
– Nampula is the third largest city in Mozambique after Maputo and Beira. Located in the Northeast of Mozambique, Nampula is the trade center in the North, which is 1,600 km from Maputo.
- Growth rate:
+ GDP growth in 2012: 7.4% (ranked 33th worldwide)
+ GDP per capita 2012: USD 579.00
- Mozambique is an agricultural country. Subsistence agriculture employs about 81% of the country's work force and contributes around 23.1% to the country’s GDP. Main agriculture products: cotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, cassava (tapioca), corn, coconuts, sisal, citrus and tropical fruits, potatoes, sunflowers; beef, poultry. Cashew nut export volume used to reach 29,000 metric ton per year. Agriculture production does not meet domestic demands, thus, Mozambique has to import 20,000-30,000 metric ton of rice every year.
- Industry only attracts 6% of the total workforce, contributing 30.2% to the GDP. The Cahora Bassa Dam helps increase its electricity exports and fulfill the needs of its burgeoning domestic industries. Main industrial products: aluminum, petroleum products, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, tobacco, food, beverages.
- Service sector in Mozambique is quite developed, attracting 13% of total workforce, and contributing 46.7% to GDP (2007). Port and terminal services also become Mozambique’s source of foreign currency.
- Mozambique population is young, age from 0-24 accounts for 66.4%.
- Urban population ratio: 38.4% (2012).
- Population in cities: Maputo (6.1%), Baucau (11%), Ermera (2.8%).
- Population allocation:
+ Agriculture: 81%
+ Industry: 6%
+ Services: 13%.
2. Class Discrimination
There exists clear class discrimination in Mozambique. Normally, the rich live in cities while the poor live in villages. Those of higher class separate themselves from the poorer class due to the differences in education and healthcare conditions.
Such discrimination is also represented in geographical areas. Most of the population, the rich and government bodies are located in the South, near Maputo. This place is more developed, with better infrastructure. This is one of the fact that leads to tension between these 2 regions.
3. Ethnic groups
Mozambique has 64 ethnic groups with 9 larger groups. Makhuwa – Lomwe is the largest group which accounts for 50% of the population who live in the South. 3% of the population are from Europe, India, China, Pakistan and Mestizo (mixed of African and European). They live in provinces along the coast and do non-agriculture job such as teacher, lawyer, worker,... Today there is around 1.1 million expatriates living in Malawi and Zimbabwe.
Roman Catholic 23.8%, Muslim 17.8%. The rest are other religions and infidel.
The Logo comprises the name Bitel, the icon and the slogan. The letter B originates from the idea of the flying Peruvian flag. The two conversing bubbles forming the letter B symbolize communication, telecommunications. Bi in Spanish is understood as “pair, couple”, indicating the interaction between the operator and its customers as well as their concern, respect and dialogue for one another. The dominating color of Bitel is yellow, a symbol of the Inca culture which worships the Sun God and gold. The yellow color symbolizes optimism, hope, luck, and ha